Mie University Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences (Master’s Course) starts an academic Ninja research program for the first time on February 2018 exam.
Mie University is located near the Iga city, the home of Ninja, being centered as an academic Ninja research in Japan.
Its Area Studies Program is divided into (i) a Society and Culture Major, subsuming the disciplines of history, philosophy, geography, topography, cultural anthropology, sociology, social psychology and library information studies; and (ii) a Language and Literature Major. On completion of the selected course, students are awarded the degree of MA in Humanities.
Mance Thompson, the world’s foremost Japanese ninja movie researcher, traveled to the birthplace of Ninja in Iga Ueno to give a presentation on Japanese ninja movies at the request of the University of Mie.
The Japanese is apt to avoid going to court.
Takeyoshi Kawashima (1902-1992), a prominent jurist, analyzed most Japanese have the thought framework of which legal norms are indefinite and are not a part of norms. Accordingly, they are expected to enforce social discipline not by a legal system, but by influence based on special relationship between those concerned including a relationship of rank.
In other words, the Japanese might regard a legal system as a means of preserving social order not of realizing justice.
In contrast with Kawashima’s “Culture-oriented Theory”, Prof. John Owen Haley (1942-), distinguished scholar of comparative law, focused on the malfunctions of the legal system including long legal proceedings and shortage of attorneys. Similarly, Prof. Masao Ohki (1931-）stated that there is a judicial insufficiency encompassing a lack of a judge and a lawyer in Japan. These are called “Malfunction Theory.”
Prof. John Mark Ramseyer (1954- ) at Harvard Law School, argues they do not use litigation because a composition is easy to be made in Japan. With an economic approach, Ramseyer tried to prove his hypothesis that Japanese judicial decisions have high predictability and they are likely to select an amicable settlement, not a lawsuit.
He pointed out a different view from a traditional thought that Japanese law plays only a trivial role or is culturally determined. This is designated as ” Predictability Theory.”